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Wednesday, April 3

  1. page Works Progress Administration edited Works Progress Administration (WPA) Stephen Conti ... When President Franklin Delano Rooseve…

    Works Progress Administration (WPA)
    Stephen Conti
    ...
    When President Franklin Delano Roosevelt took office, the country was in the middle of the Great Depression. Americans could not find jobs, lost their jobs and their homes, and farmers lost their farms. Between 1929 and 1933, there were over 12 million Americans without jobs, and almost every bank was closed. It was a time of fear, poverty, hunger and despair. {FDR.png}
    President Roosevelt was now faced with the greatest economic crisis in American history. He proposed an economic reform known as the “New Deal”, a series of programs and policies to combat the Great Depression. This was the biggest government project in our nation's history that included construction projects and social programs, new agencies and laws.
    ...
    Administration (WPA)? {WPA5.png}
    {WPA5.png}

    One of the most crucial programs of the New Deal was signed on May 6, 1935. President Roosevelt signed the Works Progress Administration (WPA) into an executive order. It is the most famous of the New Deal programs because it affected so many people’s lives. It was created as a work-relief program which employed more than 8.5 million people. Its employees built roads, public buildings, public parks, bridges and airports.
    The director of the WPA was Harry Hopkins. He was an ex-social worker and was considered an enthusiastic person. Before being cancelled in 1943, the WPA spent more than $11 million in employment relief. Despite being more expensive than direct relief payments, Hopkins believed it was necessary because, “Give a man a dole and you save his body and destroy his spirit. Give him a job and you save both body and spirit”.
    ...
    Evolution and termination
    In 1939, it was renamed as the Work Projects Administration. In 1940, the WPA changed policy and began providing training in specific trades or careers for the unemployed so they could obtain jobs in factories. Labor unions had previously vetoed any proposal to provide training for new skills. By 1943, with wartime production during World War II, growth of new companies and increased employment in the private sector, President Roosevelt signed the order terminating the WPA. It ended on June 30, 1943.
    {http://lsaushistory13.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=NaN&h=NaN}
    {http://lsaushistory13.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=NaN&h=NaN} {WPA1a.png}
    {WPA1a.png} {WPA1.png}
    (view changes)
    2:58 pm
  2. page Works Progress Administration edited Works Progress Administration (WPA) Stephen Conti Background Information The time, the 1920’s, …
    Works Progress Administration (WPA)
    Stephen Conti
    Background Information
    The time, the 1920’s, often referred to as the Roaring Twenties or the Jazz Age, was the decade that followed World War I. It was a time of dramatic changes for the nation and Americans. America was now the richest nation. The economy was strong, there were many jobs, and for the first time, more Americans lived in cities than on farms. It was a period of good times for most Americans, an era of American prosperity and optimism. Also, it was the decade of the Ford Model T automobile, the first flight across the Atlantic Ocean, the invention of the radio, and the first movie with sound.
    Then, on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday, the stock market crashed; and the nation’s strong economy collapsed. America was now in an economic depression, known as the Great Depression. It was the largest and most significant economic depression to affect not only America, but also the world.
    When President Franklin Delano Roosevelt took office, the country was in the middle of the Great Depression. Americans could not find jobs, lost their jobs and their homes, and farmers lost their farms. Between 1929 and 1933, there were over 12 million Americans without jobs, and almost every bank was closed. It was a time of fear, poverty, hunger and despair. {FDR.png}
    President Roosevelt was now faced with the greatest economic crisis in American history. He proposed an economic reform known as the “New Deal”, a series of programs and policies to combat the Great Depression. This was the biggest government project in our nation's history that included construction projects and social programs, new agencies and laws.
    What is the Works Progress Administration (WPA)? {WPA5.png}
    One of the most crucial programs of the New Deal was signed on May 6, 1935. President Roosevelt signed the Works Progress Administration (WPA) into an executive order. It is the most famous of the New Deal programs because it affected so many people’s lives. It was created as a work-relief program which employed more than 8.5 million people. Its employees built roads, public buildings, public parks, bridges and airports.
    The director of the WPA was Harry Hopkins. He was an ex-social worker and was considered an enthusiastic person. Before being cancelled in 1943, the WPA spent more than $11 million in employment relief. Despite being more expensive than direct relief payments, Hopkins believed it was necessary because, “Give a man a dole and you save his body and destroy his spirit. Give him a job and you save both body and spirit”.
    The WPA concerned itself with employing many people. However, only 13.5 percent of WPA employees were women, even in WPA’s highest employment year of 1938. Although it had been decided that women would be paid the same wages as men, women were given lower-paying jobs. These jobs included sewing, bookbinding, caring for the elderly, school lunch programs, nursery school, and recreational work. The director of the women’s programs at the WPA was Ellen Woodward. She successfully pushed for women to be included in the Professional Projects Division. The Professional Projects Division oversaw the federal art, music, theater, and writers’ projects.
    Hopkins believed federal support of the arts was beneficial. When federal support of artists was questioned, Hopkins answered, “Hell! They’ve got to eat just like other people.” Tens of thousands of artists were funded to create 2,566 murals and 17,744 sculptures that were to be placed in public buildings across the nation. The federal art, theater, music, and writing programs, brought more art to more Americans than anything else in history. The National Foundation for the Arts and the National Endowment for the Humanities were created because of the WPA program in the arts.
    Even though the WPA helped so many Americans, it was not able to employ everyone and those it did employ were paid low wages. There were five million left unemployed and they needed to get assistance from state relief programs. These state programs, gave an average of $10 per week to families. However, the WPA still improved the overall mood of the nation. In February 1936, a poem sent to Roosevelt stating:
    “I THINKTHAT WE SHALLNEVERSEEA PRESIDENTLIKEUNTOTHEE . . . POEMSAREMADE BY FOOLSLIKE ME,BUTGOD, I THINK, MADEFRANKLIN D.”
    In its first year, the WPA employed more than 3 million people and over eight years, provided work for over 8 million Americans. These workers were paid an average monthly salary of $41.57 and put $11 million into the economy. The WPA program constructed and repaired 2,500 hospitals, 5,900 schools, 572,000 miles of highways, 13,000 playgrounds, and 8,000 parks and included many other odd jobs. Although this agency had decreased unemployment, it officially ended in 1943.
    Criticism
    There were many conservatives against the WPA. The agency was criticized about funding projects that were not needed or wanted. Critics would say the WPA employees were paid to “rake leaves in the park”. Also, some projects were criticized for being too much on the left wing. White-collar jobs had social and political themes. One criticism was that the WPA made decisions on the basis of politics. Senators and Representatives in favor of the New Deal or had high political power often decided which states or places received the most funding. Conservatives criticized that Roosevelt was building a Democratic machine with the support of the millions of newly employed workers.
    {Cartoon.png}
    Democratic National Chairman Jim Farley rides the WPA to victory in 1936 elections as WPA head Harry Hopkins approves, in this anti-WPA cartoon.
    The WPA's criticisms included satirical jokes and phrases, such as, "We Poke Along," "We Piddle Along" or "We Putter Around." These things were said because some WPA projects lost momentum because the government was not able to influence worker productivity by demoting or firing the employees. The government based the wages it gave to its WPA employees on a “security wage”. This means the workers were paid even if the project was delayed, constructed incorrectly, or not finished at all.
    Evolution and termination
    In 1939, it was renamed as the Work Projects Administration. In 1940, the WPA changed policy and began providing training in specific trades or careers for the unemployed so they could obtain jobs in factories. Labor unions had previously vetoed any proposal to provide training for new skills. By 1943, with wartime production during World War II, growth of new companies and increased employment in the private sector, President Roosevelt signed the order terminating the WPA. It ended on June 30, 1943.
    {http://lsaushistory13.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=NaN&h=NaN}
    {http://lsaushistory13.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=NaN&h=NaN} {WPA1a.png} {WPA1.png}

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  4. file WPA1a.png uploaded
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  5. file WPA5.png uploaded
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  7. file FDR.png uploaded
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Saturday, March 30

  1. page John Maynard Keynes edited ... Legacy of Keynesian Economics Ultimately, Keynesian economics has played a critical role in A…
    ...
    Legacy of Keynesian Economics
    Ultimately, Keynesian economics has played a critical role in American economics- specifically in recessions and depressions. For example, as you are well aware, the stock market crashed on black Tuesday- October 29, 1929. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who was in office from March 4, 1933 – April 12, 1945 did his best to take care of this problem using the New Deal. The New Deal implemented several ideas from Keynesian Economics. As I stated above, Keynesian economics is all about putting money into the economy to stimulate it and to create jobs. The New Deal did just that. It created several administrations including the WPA, the PWA and the CCC. Each of these corporations helped to create jobs through the government’s intervention. By doing this, Roosevelt helped to stimulate the economy, create jobs, and ultimately get America ready to escape from the Great Depression by the time of WWII.
    {http://notionscapital.files.wordpress.com/2008/04/21st-century-new-deal.jpg}
    Keynesian economics doesn’t just stop at the New Deal however. It is still playing a role in our economy today. Many modern economists are relating Keynesian economics to Barack Obama and his policies. President Obama has spent the most out of any president and in some cases his expenditures are paying off. Our country is slowly but surely moving out of the recession and America is getting back on its feet. In fact, during his 4 years as president, Obama has created 4 million jobs, which shows how effective Keynesian economics has truly been for America. Ultimately, it is easy to see that Keynesian economics has proven to be beneficial to this country and, chances are, it will continue to do so because of the strong faith Americans have put behind it.
    Conclusion
    ...
    Keynesian economics.
    (view changes)
    7:34 pm
  2. page John Maynard Keynes edited ... Background Jonn Maynard Keynes, born on June 5, 1883, was a British economist whose ideas wer…
    ...
    Background
    Jonn Maynard Keynes, born on June 5, 1883, was a British economist whose ideas were so influential that they have affected modern day macroeconomics as well as the economic policies of certain governments. Due to his developments in the field of macroeconomics, Keynes has been commonly called one of the founders of modern macroeconomics. Ultimately, his ideas were also the basis to Keynesian economics- which later became the foundation for the New Deal and other such movements.
    {http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2008/12/15/timestopics/keynes_395.jpg} {http://blogs.worldbank.org/files/publicsphere/Johanna/keynes.jpg}
    Who was Keynes
    ...
    in mathematics.
    {http://media-cache-ec3.pinterest.com/192x/86/64/36/866436a9a738bcc495ad19a8bbeabbe3.jpg}
    Following this,
    “his axioms are good; they are simple and few and by the aid of the symbolism he deduces the whole subject from them by rigid reasoning. The very certainty and ease by which he is enabled to solve difficult questions and to detect ambiguities and errors in the work of his predecessors exemplifies and at the same time almost conceals the advance which he has made.”
    Later on, Keynes published a book which was also praised by many people. For example, Russell stated:
    The mathematical calculus is astonishingly powerful, considering the very restricted premises which form its foundation... The book as a whole is one which it is impossible to praise too highly and it is hoped that it will stimulate further work on a most important subject which philosophers and logicians have unduly neglected.
    After having published his book, Keynes began to teach at Cambridge and wrote many essays on the topic of statistics. Keynes also wrote on economics related to India and published “Indian Currency and Finance” in 1913. This book was widely praised and from here, Keynes soon became appointed secretary of commission to examine Indian finance and currency.
    ...
    Sussex, England.
    {http://en.nkfu.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/John-Maynard-Keynes-Quotes-6.jpg} (for a bit of Keynesian humor!)

    Keynesian Economics
    ...
    recessive state. As you can see from the picture below- Keynes clearly detested inflation (as a result of a recessive economy) because it is essentially stealing wealth from its citizens (by devaluing what they already have).
    {http://en.nkfu.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/John-Maynard-Keynes-Quotes-2.jpg} {http://www.nidokidos.org/attachment.php?attachmentid=130230&d=1357709108}

    Legacy of Keynesian Economics
    Ultimately, Keynesian economics has played a critical role in American economics- specifically in recessions and depressions. For example, as you are well aware, the stock market crashed on black Tuesday- October 29, 1929. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who was in office from March 4, 1933 – April 12, 1945 did his best to take care of this problem using the New Deal. The New Deal implemented several ideas from Keynesian Economics. As I stated above, Keynesian economics is all about putting money into the economy to stimulate it and to create jobs. The New Deal did just that. It created several administrations including the WPA, the PWA and the CCC. Each of these corporations helped to create jobs through the government’s intervention. By doing this, Roosevelt helped to stimulate the economy, create jobs, and ultimately get America ready to escape from the Great Depression by the time of WWII.
    {http://notionscapital.files.wordpress.com/2008/04/21st-century-new-deal.jpg}
    Keynesian economics doesn’t just stop at the New Deal however. It is still playing a role in our economy today. Many modern economists are relating Keynesian economics to Barack Obama and his policies. President Obama has spent the most out of any president and in some cases his expenditures are paying off. Our country is slowly but surely moving out of the recession and America is getting back on its feet. In fact, during his 4 years as president, Obama has created 4 million jobs, which shows how effective Keynesian economics has truly been for America. Ultimately, it is easy to see that Keynesian economics has proven to be beneficial to this country and, chances are, it will continue to do so because of the strong faith Americans have put behind it.
    Conclusion
    (view changes)
    7:32 pm
  3. page John Maynard Keynes edited John Maynard Keynes Background Jonn Maynard Keynes, born on June 5, 1883, was a British economi…
    John Maynard Keynes
    Background
    Jonn Maynard Keynes, born on June 5, 1883, was a British economist whose ideas were so influential that they have affected modern day macroeconomics as well as the economic policies of certain governments. Due to his developments in the field of macroeconomics, Keynes has been commonly called one of the founders of modern macroeconomics. Ultimately, his ideas were also the basis to Keynesian economics- which later became the foundation for the New Deal and other such movements.
    (view changes)
    7:21 pm

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